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Tackling Parkinson Disease Through Cell Rejuvenation

 

It started with a hand tremor that was more pronounced when typing. At first, it just interfered with hobbies. But it got progressively worse. Soon handwriting was illegible. The simple act of walking became difficult. Memory problems and an urgency to urinate finally send the patient to the doctor, for the cruel diagnosis: Parkinson disease, a condition resulting from cell degeneration in the brain.

There are other disorders like it, Alzheimer for example, that share an important trait — they arise when the body’s aging cells stop doing what they are supposed to do.

For many of these conditions, there are no cures, just treatments designed to slow the progression, where possible. But we may soon be looking at new treatment options developed through mitochondrial genetics and the study of aging.

The degeneration of aging cells is related to abnormalities in power plant organelles called mitochondria. In normal cell function, these mitochondria deteriorate over time and are eventually ejected from the cell.

Over the past few decades, researchers have discovered evidence that mitochondria become dysfunctional because of mutations in their DNA. (Mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA, is separate from the DNA comprising the chromosomes of a cell’s nucleus.) The dysfunction, in turn, is connected to cellular aging and the onset of degenerative diseases. There are two new developments in this area of research.

Tackling Parkinson Disease Through Cell Rejuvenation

The first involves the realization that while certain mtDNA mutations contribute to the disruption of mitochondrial function, there are mutations in other mitochondrial genes that prevent the cell from removing the dysfunctional mitochondria. Essentially, the cell loses the ability to perform its own quality control.

“We know that increased rates of mtDNA mutation cause premature aging,” said Bruce Hay, Professor of biology and biological engineering at the California Institute of Technology. “This, coupled with the fact that mutant mtDNA accumulates in key tissues such as neurons and muscle that lose function as we age, suggests that if we could reduce the amount of mutant mtDNA, we could slow or reverse important aspects of aging.”

This brings us to the second major development relevant to mitochondria in disease — that genetic technology is now at a point where the targeted removal of the problem mitochondrial genes can become the basis for clinical intervention. This is the implication of research that Hay and colleagues both at Caltech and the University of California at Los Angeles have described in a paper published recently in the prestigious journal Nature Communications.

Fixing body tissues by knocking out genes that prevent bad mitochondrial from being ousted in a timely fashion might sound like science fiction, but that’s where things are going and it’s part of a growing trend of what’s being described as mitochondrial medicine.

With degenerative diseases, the standard treatment involves the replacement of the physiologic function of the diseased tissue. In Parkinson disease, this often means replacing a neurotransmitter called dopamine in a part of the brain where it’s lacking, due to degeneration of dopamine-making cells. While this works well in the initial stages of the disease, it gradually becomes less effective.

There are two new strategies. One is to regenerate the failing tissue using stem cells. The other is gene therapy in which the patients’ own brain cells are given the ability to make something they don’t usually make. For instance, the part of the brain that usually receives dopamine is given the ability to make its own dopamine.

Neurosurgeons are actually quite good at injecting agents into specific regions of the brain with extreme precision. This is why gene therapy and stem cell therapy are showing promise. But this also means there’s a capability to deliver agents that could affect mitochondria. It means that it should be possible in the near future to manage degenerative diseases with a third advance treatment prong: restoring the cell’s ability to expel failing mitochondria.

Source : https://goo.gl/JdfS9M

Stem Cell Revolution Trudges Forward

We are still in the early stages [of stem cell treatment]. In 2014, Dr. Masayo Takahashi and her colleagues at the Riken Center for Developmental Biology had great success using iPS cells to treat macular degeneration.

In some ways, yes, [the promise of stem cells] is overstated. For example, target diseases for cell therapy are limited. There are about 10: Parkinson’s, retinal and corneal diseases, heart and liver failure, diabetes and only a few more — spinal cord injury, joint disorders and some blood disorders…The number of human diseases is enormous.

Stem Cell Revolution Trudges Forward

I think the science has moved too far ahead of talk of ethical issues. When we succeeded in making iPS cells, we thought, wow, we can now overcome ethical issues of using embryos to make stem cell lines.

But soon after, we realized we are making new ethical issues. We can make a human kidney or human pancreas in pigs if human iPS cells are injected into the embryo. But how much can we do those things?

It is very controversial. These treatments may help thousands of people. So getting an ethical consensus is extremely important.

Source : https://goo.gl/1tIykZ

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June 27-29, 2016 Valencia, Spain
“The European perspective of Biologics and Biosimilars”

Meet World leading Biosimilar Industry Leaders from 50+ different Countries
I hope this message finds you well. I’m honored to request you to speak at 5th European Biosimilars Congress happening from June 27-29, 2016 Valencia, Spain and would be so excited if you would join us.
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The Euro Biosimilars 2016 Committee is pleased to announce that they are currently accepting proposals for Symposia and Workshops on the above given topics. All proposals must be submitted to: eurobiosimilars@conferenceseries.com
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Current Pharmaceutical Design

Dr. A. S. Srivastava                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Stem Cell Core Labratory
Salk Institute for Biological Studies La Jolla
CA 92037
United States

Dear Dr. Srivastava,

On behalf of the editorial board of “Current Pharmaceutical Design”, I would like to propose your name to be considered as an Executive Guest Editor for a thematic issue of the journal in a hot topic area.

“Current Pharmaceutical Design” is a leading international journal, which publishes frontier reviews in important fields of drug discovery. The journal is published by Bentham Science Publishers and has been widely acclaimed because of its excellent standards and the high quality of publications. It is abstracted/indexed in a number of major abstracting/indexing agencies, Impact Factor: 6.452 (2014 SCI Journal Citation Reports). Each issue is published under a Guest Editor who is an authority in the field and who is responsible for soliciting top class articles covering various important aspects of the field from leading authorities.

Bentham Science Publishers is currently publishing 42 issues of the journal annually. These “theme issues” contain articles in important fields of current research activity written by eminent experts in the field. The Guest Editor is responsible for soliciting top class articles covering various important aspects of the selected topic from leading authorities in the field. In view of current demand for the journal, the publishers are soliciting additional topic themes relevant to pharmaceutical design. Please visit the website of Current Pharmaceutical Design for more information.

If you are interested in being considered for the post of Executive Guest Editor, then please send us the following:

1. Title of your topic or theme.
2. List of authors (along with their affiliation) and the titles of the articles they are contributing.
3. Brief introduction of the issue.
4. A description stating how the subject will contribute to the field.
5. Your complete CV and detailed list of publications.

The aim of the journal is to provide readers with comprehensive accounts of recent developments in the frontier areas of the field. The articles should take the form of full-length manuscripts of recent developments in important areas related to pharmaceutical design within a therapeutic field. They could include accounts of the author’s research work combined with a review of the recent literature so that the readers will not only have the opportunity of benefiting from the author’s contribution, but will also gain access to a broader perspective of the field.

We will need to have about 250-300 printed pages in the journal issue from about 10-15 authors who are leading experts in the field (for manuscript preparation details please visit Author Guidelines Please note that no research articles will be accepted as a part of the thematic issue.

As the Executive Guest Editor, you will be required to contribute a one-page foreword highlighting the importance of the chosen topic and of the articles contained in the issue. You may also contribute an article to the issue yourself. You will be entitled to free online subscription to the whole volume of the journal for the year in which your issue has appeared. Appointment as the Executive Guest Editor is renewable by mutual agreement.

I would be grateful if you could please send your reply to me at thematicissue@benthamscience.org. as soon as possible along with the choice of the proposed theme/ topic area of your interest.

I shall be looking forward to receiving your positive reply.

Yours truly,

Prof. William A. Banks
Editor-in-Chief Current Pharmaceutical Design
Email: thematicissue@benthamscience.org.

                                                                                                                                                                               

Researchers found that after testing five SCID-X1 patients who received both gene therapy and low-dose chemotherapy, four of the patients showed improvements in immune function. Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have come up with a new gene therapy that can restore immunity…

The standard treatment would include a transplant of stem cells, which can be obtained from the direct family members. Only one of them unfortunately perished, due to a pre-existing condition that damaged their lungs before the new therapy could be applied. Currently, patients suffering from SCID-X1 are treated with stem cell transplants.

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases reports a procedure including the extraction, genetic correction and reinsertion of a patient’s bone marrow can help their immune systems improve over time.

SCID-X1 is generally triggered by mutations in the IL2RG gene that averts infection-fighting immune cells from developing and working normally, leaving inflicted children highly vulnerable to life-threatening infections. One of the lifesaving treatments for very young children with SCID-X1 is transplantation of stem cells, ideally from a sibling donor who is genetically matched.

In the latest study, scientists examined the safety and effectiveness of gene therapy pooled with low-dose chemotherapy in five SCID-X1 patients.

Using a lentiviral vector, the scientists included a healthy IL2RG gene in the stem cells. The patients were then given low-dose chemotherapy to eliminate the defective blood cells. One patient received treatment three years ago with continued improvements. Another patient is doing well and continues to show improvement even after three years of the gene therapy. Three more patients aged 7 to 24 are improving, though it has only been three to six months since the treatment was performed. All surviving patients are continually being monitored.

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency is a rare immunodeficiency that leads to frequent serious infections. They manipulated the virus gene to deliver the right gene to the cell. By collecting an individual s stem cells and modifying them with a lentivirus, the gene-corrected cells can be returned into the blood to help produce normal healthy immune cells. Accessible treatments for this once-deadly disorder have centered around bone marrow transplants, yet encouraging results have been reported by an on-going clinical trial for an emerging gene therapy – Lentiviral gene transfer.

To determine the safety and effectiveness of lentiviral gene transfer as a treatment for children and adolescents with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

Resource : http://goo.gl/nUrAFf

Regenerative medicine products are built via a combination of three elements: living cells, a matrix to support the living cells (i.e. a scaffold), and cell communicators (or signaling systems) to stimulate the cells, and their surrounding environment to grow and develop into new tissue.

These are special cells in the body that can turn into other types of cells. During the healing process, regenerative cells are called to the area of the body that needs repair. Factors in the area influence the regenerative cells to become repair cells.

Interestingly, the same regenerative cells that repair bone can also repair muscle, tendon, ligament, or cartilage. Of all of the types of cells, regenerative cells have the greatest potential to promote healing.

Regenerative cells are undifferentiated cells found in bone marrow that have the capacity to become bone, muscle, cartilage, ligament and tendon cells. Upon arrival to the injured tissue, regenerative cells take on the characteristics of that host tissue.

Stem Cell

This naturally occurring process is the body’s way of initiating the healing cascade. Because of the dramatic healing capabilities of regenerative cells, BioCellular Therapies has developed concise research and methods that will deliver an increased number of these cells, millions versus thousands, to injured tissue, thereby enhancing the healing process.

Isolating Adult Stem Cells

Using the body’s natural T- Cells for the tissue regenerative property which is highly concentrated in bone marrow. Isolating adult stem cells from a variety of tissues in addition to the blood allows for the ability to create a systematic approach, and specifically crafted treatment plan created specific to each patient.

It is understood that no two people are the same. Hence why we take the time to research and find out every detail of each patient. With our state of the art technology, and research we strive to create the best treatment plan. Upon countless hours of research our doctors do an in depth patient history, and develop the best plan possible for you.

Understanding Adult Stem Cells

ASC stands for adult stem cell. The adult stem cell can renew itself and can differentiate to yield some or all of the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ. The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. This is only found in adults.

Where Are ASCS?

Adult stem cells have been found in the brain, bone marrow, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, and other organs and tissues. They are in specific areas of each tissue, where they may remain dormant for years, dividing and creating new cells only when they are activated by tissue injury, disease or anything else that makes the body need more cells.

How Do We Get ASCS

Adult stem cells can be isolated from the body in different ways, depending on the tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells, which can make bone, cartilage, fat, fibrous connective tissue, and cells that support the formation of blood can also be isolated from bone marrow. Which is considered to be he most nutrient in the body of ASCs.

Focus Is On Cures

Regenerative medicine includes tissue engineering but also incorporates research on self-healing – where the body uses its own systems, sometimes with help foreign biological material to recreate cells and rebuild tissues and organs. The focus is on cures instead of treatments for complex, often chronic, diseases.

Source : http://goo.gl/by4YRS

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